
Topic 
Content 
1 
Material and Energy Balance 
Material Balances 
2 

Energy Balances 
3 
Fluid Handling Systems 
Fluids 
4 

Laminar and Turbulent Flow 
5 

Friction in fluid flow, Friction Factor 
6 

Bernoulli's Equation, Energy requirements in pumping 
7 

Flow Measurements, UTube Manometer, Pitot tube 
8 
Steam 
Thermodynamic characteristics of steam 
9 
Heat Transfer in Foods 
Modes of heat transfer, overview of conduction, convection, and radiation 
10 

Steady state heat transfer, conduction in rectangular and cylindrical walls 
11 

Conduction heat transfer in multiplelayered walls, rectangular and cylindrical 
12 

Convective heat transfer, Newton’s law of cooling 
13 

Forced convection heat transfer 
14 

Free convection heat transfer 
15 

Overall heat transfer coefficient 
16 

Tubular heat exchangers 
17 

Unsteady state heat transfer, Biot number, Negligible resistance to internal heat transfer 
18 

Heisler charts, Finite resistance to internal and external heat transfer 
19 
Thermal Processing of Foods 
Decimal reduction time, Dvalue, thermal resistance characteristic, zvalue 
20 

Thermal death time, F value 
21 

Thermal process calculations, General Method 
22 

Thermal process calculations, Improved General Method 
23 
Psychrometrics 
Properties of air and water vapor mixtures 
24 

Psychrometric chart 
25 
Food Dehydration 
Moisture contentdry and wet basis, Drying ratesconstant and falling rate 
26 

Prediction of drying time, constant rate and falling rate periods 
27 
Evaporation 
Singleeffect evaporators, heat and mass balance, steam economy 
28 

Multipleeffect evaporators, heat and mass balance, types of evaporators 
29 
Refrigeration 
Properties of refrigerants 
30 

Vapor compression refrigeration system 
31 

Pressure enthalpy charts, ideal and nonideal cycles 
32 
Food Freezing 
Ice crystallization process 
33 

Freezing time, Plank’s equation, Pham method 
34 

Freezer selection criteria 